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Participating in a variety of activities should take the form of peripheral participation. Space and time should be reserved for experimenting with and reflecting upon the activities engaged in. If experiences are not reinforced by means of reflection, discussion with other apprentices or masters, and so on, the chances are high that these experiences will remain superficial. No thorough understanding is built up when short-term demands interrupt this process of ‘sense-making’. When no time is left for discussion, reflection and narration – in other words, making sense of everything – people will start feeling insecure and helpless, suffer from stress, and will muddle through with their unsatisfactory understanding (because it has been experienced as incomplete), adding to what is known as the cycle of failure (see Chapter 2).