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Crime is unavoidable in any society that upholds law and order. Criminology tries to explain why people commit crimes in the society. Through testable empirical evidence, society can evaluate criminal behavior rationally. This article helps you to understand the importance of criminology in understanding crime and criminal behavior. Get customized essays and projects on crime and criminology through our experts at friendly prices. Our team of experts helps you to understand crime and criminology by taking you through a series of clear explanations and detailed information.

Criminologists use scientific methods of research and rational theories to explain criminal behavior. Their research is based on testable empirical evidence, which evaluates crime on the scale of individual behavior versus their environment. One may ask, should an individual carry the blame for a crime they commit? Or do they harbor traumas or mental illnesses that led them to engage in criminal behavior? While all human beings are capable of committing crimes, what makes some engage in crime? Even further, criminologists evaluate whether one’s genetics contributed to their criminal life.

The above questions and descriptions depict criminology as an important branch of demystifying crime in society. Although all human beings are initially born in a state of grace and innocence, there is a need to understand what pushes them to escape from this authentic nature. As a result, it becomes easier to develop workable strategies to solve a crime and rehabilitate offenders.

Criminology has helped to develop a number of crime theories that explain crime and criminal behavior. It tends to identify the cause and factors that lead to offender criminality by considering the theories of rational choice, and sociological, biological and psychological positivism. As a branch of criminology, the positivist school perceives criminal behavior to be distinct and driven by varying factors. This means that when one commits a crime, they are influenced by either a rational decision from within themselves, or by internal predispositions or by their environment. Thus, the judicial system uses these structures when making their verdicts. When handling a crime and criminology essay, it is important to develop your ideas from one of the crime theories, as they tend to provide a clear perspective towards the various issues surrounding crime.

Rational Choice in Perpetrating Crime

A rational choice is one where an individual makes a cautious and logical decision regarding a situation, they intend to engage in. As mentioned before, every human being is capable of committing a crime. However, offenders choose to commit a crime for their personal gain. For example, some may be motivated by the desire to acquire easy money, fun, status or power. They are fully aware of the consequences, options and the benefits that come with the choice they make. They then decide on the location, target and the method of executing their crime, while they are fully aware that it is wrong and against the law.

Choice is the bridge between offenders and non-offenders. Since a criminal knows the risk involved in their preferred choice, they come up with an intellectual strategy so that they are not caught. This means that they are afraid of the punishment that follows when they are caught. When using the rational choice theory, you must consider crime as an individual decision. Thus, the offender should fully take responsibility of their crimes.

Sociological Positivism

When investigating crime under sociological positivism, you may consider how an offender’s social environment influenced their negative behavior. You may consider their social structures such as family, their peer groups, or their socioeconomic status, which may have pushed them to commit the crime. The immediate environment is very vital in the formation of your character. A dysfunctional social, economic and political society may push an individual to crime, as a way of dealing with their individual predicament. Offenders will conform to what they learn in that environment, which may push them to commit a crime. For example, a person whose peer group engages in negative behavior will, more often than not, be recruited into the criminal culture. Similarly, some people whose families live in extreme poverty may commit a crime to sustain themselves. This shows that the social environment is a big role player in our lives, which may push one to commit crimes.

Biological Positivism

Could crime be a genetic problem? Cesare Lombroso, the criminal anthropologist who developed this theory, argued that some people are born criminals. He argues that the genetic disposition of the individual will largely affect how they turn out in their life. It is more like skin color, which cannot be changed. The “criminal genes” could be an inherited trait from a parent to their child. The presence of these genes places an individual at a higher possibility of committing crimes in their lifetime. The theory takes into consideration certain factors such as hormonal imbalances, a deficiency of vitamins, a person’s diet and the brain function, in order to make an objective conclusion.

Psychological Positivism

According to the psychological positivism, a person’s mental wellbeing may affect their rate of criminality. The theory puts into consideration various aspects such as personality disorders. They may include bipolar disorders, depression, psychopathic personality disorders and antisocial personalities among others. psychological positivists perceive committing of crimes under such a situation as having a criminal mind. The causes of crime are directed to the mind and thus, the drive to commit a crime is perceived as an internal factor.

Psychological positivism is closely related to biological positivism. In fact, the modern approach perceives the two as one. They both focus on the individual’s personality and psychological make-up, that may drive them to act amorally. Crimes such as serial killing may be traced to this factor, as most of the perpetrators are often found to be suffering from one disorder or another.

Understanding crime and the different criminology perspectives towards it enables criminologists to implement laws and strategies to rehabilitate criminals. Although the policy implications direct that criminals need to be punished for their crimes, understanding the cause of their actions creates a solution that lasts in the long run.

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